What are the Main Causes of Diabetes?Alldays Medicine
Diabetes awareness and management efforts have increased worldwide. However, further efforts are still needed. In 2019, 463 million people worldwide had diabetes. It is estimated that it will affect 578 million people by 2030. With the same increasing trend, diabetes will affect 700 million people by 2045. Read on to find out what are the main causes of diabetes.
Therefore, proper awareness about diabetes and its treatment is very important. This can be done by examining in detail the causes of diabetes.
Diabetes is explained briefly
Glucose is released into the blood after the digestion process. These are then absorbed by the body’s cells to release energy. This is how the blood maintains glucose levels. To maintain proper blood sugar levels and help cells absorb glucose, our bodies use a hormone called insulin. The pancreas secretes insulin, which helps regulate blood sugar levels.
Blood sugar levels become abnormal when our bodies become resistant to insulin or when cells in the pancreas stop producing insulin. Body cells are also unable to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. This causes blood sugar levels to rise above normal levels. This condition, in which the blood sugar level is elevated, is called diabetes.
Normal blood sugar levels
less than 100 mg/dL after at least eight hours without food (fasting) and
Less than 140 mg/dL two hours after eating.
Abnormal blood sugar levels
more than 130 mg/dL before meals (on an empty stomach) and
more than 190 mg/dL two hours after eating.
Types and causes of diabetes
There are three types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes: due to insulin deficiency
Type 2 diabetes: When the body becomes resistant to insulin
Gestational diabetes: elevated blood sugar during pregnancy.
Causes of prediabetes
Prediabetes is a condition in which you don’t have diabetes and your blood sugar level is still higher than normal. You are more likely to get prediabetes if you:
- Obesity or overweight
- Your ethnicity is African-American, Native American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander
- Diagnosed with gestational diabetes
- Unhealthy eating patterns, including consumption of sweet drinks, consumption of red meat
- Sufferers of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Prediabetes blood glucose level: Unless you have risk factors such as obesity, a genetic history of diabetes, or other medical conditions, a blood glucose level of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) is indicative of prediabetes.
If prediabetes is not treated properly, it can lead to diabetes. Therefore, prediabetes is an early warning sign of the disease.
Prediabetes occurs when blood sugar levels are in the range of 140 to 199 mg/dl. This is an early warning sign of diabetes and requires prompt treatment.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
Another name for type 1 diabetes is juvenile diabetes because it occurs more often in children. This is a chronic condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. It usually occurs in childhood or adolescence.
Type 1 diabetes causes:
Autoimmune disease: When the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
Bacterial or viral infections can interfere with the immune system and cause diabetes
Genetic factors: Variations in the HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1 genes, which help in the response of the immune system, can cause diabetes .
Chemical toxins: Some chemical toxins alter the immune response and damage pancreatic beta cells, causing diabetes.
Insulin deficiency is the main cause of type 1 diabetes.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects how your body metabolizes or processes blood sugar. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop gradually.
- In type 2 diabetes, the cells are unable to take the required amount of glucose from the blood because the cells become resistant to insulin.
- Increase blood sugar levels.
- Higher glucose levels signal the pancreas to produce more insulin
- It weakens pancreatic beta cells and causes insulin deficiency.
In this way, blood sugar levels increase, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems over time.
Several factors lead to type 2 diabetes. However, the exact cause of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Possible reasons are:
- Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle
- Higher glucose production in the liver
- Genetic influence and heredity
- Dysfunction of beta cells in the pancreas
Causes of gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman’s blood sugar level becomes high during pregnancy.
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that help the body build glucose. When the body is unable to produce enough insulin to treat this condition, blood sugar levels start to rise. This eventually leads to gestational diabetes.
- Obesity and overweight
- Excessive weight gain during pregnancy
- Polycystic ovary syndrome causes weight gain
- Genetic history of diabetes
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